SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal <p>SBV Journal of Basic, Clinical and Applied Health Science seeks to promote and disseminate the knowledge by publishing original research findings, review articles, empirical investigations, theoretical papers, case <em>studies</em> and short communications in the field of <em>health sciences</em> including anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, pathology, microbiology, social and preventive medicine; medicine, surgery, paediatrics, dentistry, nursing, obstetrics, gynaecology, pulmonary medicine, etc</p> en-US editor@jbcahs.org (Adithan Chandrasekaran) tech.editor@jbcahs.org (Dr Jagan Mohan R) Fri, 22 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 3D printed microfluidic chips: Futuristic approach for rapid, affordable, point-of-care diagnostics and biomedical research https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/205 <p>Point-of-care (POC) or bedside diagnostics are becoming the ultimate need for improving medical treatment and better healthcare. The advantages of this strategy are rapid diagnosis, affordable cost, requirement of less expertise and possibility of being performed in resource limited healthcare settings. The development of POC diagnostics requires an inter-disciplinary approach which can improve diagnostic parameters like sensitivity and specificity and also enhance analysis with low sample volume. Advancements in microfluidic technology has enabled the researchers to develop such diagnostics, integrated with sensors for rapid and easy detection.</p> Benet Bosco Dhas D, Adithan C Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/205 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:45:54 +0530 Management of chronic malignant pain – an updated review https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/138 <p>Cancer Pain is a multidimensional pain experience which involves diverse neurophysiological changes and is associated with significant cognitive, emotional and sociocultural problems. Globally, the incidence is very high and usually it is undertreated Lack of knowledge about managing malignant pain is an important cause of undertreatment. All types of pain are possible with malignancies. Assessment of pain characteristics is vital for proper management.&nbsp; The WHO step ladder pattern is the cornerstone of management. There are different pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods. Morphine is the choice opioid being administered by various routes. All drugs should be used as round the clock regimen. Opioid switch is opted to tackle tolerance. Nerve blockade especially with alcohol are still being used today. &nbsp;Newer treatment modalities like implantable intrathecal pumps, dorsal column stimulation are in the pipeline for future. A passionate counselling may frequently release knotted conundrum of difficult analgesic strategies.</p> Parthasarathy S, Abhimanyu Singh Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/138 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:40:51 +0530 Yoga training enhances auditory and visual reaction time in children with autism spectrum disorder: A case - control study https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/146 <p>ABSTRACT:</p> <p>Introduction: Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder leading to multiple problems including academic difficulties and impaired skills. Information processing is abnormal in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their central nervous system (CNS) is either over or under aroused and reaction time (RT) is a useful marker to study the ability of CNS.&nbsp; Subjects and Methods: 72 ASD children were divided equally into control group (Group I) who did not undergo yoga training and yoga group (Group II) who received 60 minutes’ yoga training, five days a week, for 12 weeks. Components of yoga protocol included&nbsp; <em>jathis</em>, <em>kriyas</em>, <em>asanas</em>, <em>pranayamas </em>and yogic relaxation.(Table 1). Auditory RT (ART) and Visual RT&nbsp; (VRT) were recorded before and after 12 weeks' yoga training&nbsp; using RT apparatus. Data was assessed for normality using GraphPad InStat version 3.06 for Windows 95. Wilcoxon matched‑pairs signed‑ranks test was used for intragroup comparison and Mann–Whitney test for intergroup comparison. P &lt;0.05 was accepted as indicating significance. Results: Values were given as Median (Range). Intra-group comparisons showed a highly significant increase in ART in group I (p &lt; 0.001) whereas both ART and VRT decreased significantly in group II (p &lt; 0.001) with yoga training. Intergroup comparisons show highly significant differences in ART and VRT values (P&lt; 0.0001). Delta % changes are also highly significant for both ART and VRT (P&lt; 0.0001). (Table II). Discussion: Significant reduction in ART and VRT signify faster reactivity due to greater arousal and faster rate of information processing along with improved concentration, increased neurotransmitter production along with significant decrease of cortisol and increase in brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), serotonin, and dopamine and/or enhanced central neuronal processing resulting in better sense of alertness, sensitivity and awareness in autistic children following yoga&nbsp; which forms the basis of many cognitive tasks. Conclusion: Yoga training may be utilized to reduce dependency on others and enhance learning capabilities and social skills in ASD children. We suggest that yoga be made a part of everyday schedule in schools for children with special needs as it can enhance quality of life and improve overall health among this population.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong>reaction time, central neuronal processing, social skills, quality of life</p> Ramanathan M, Eswari R, Bhavanani A.B., Prathima G.S., Sanguida A Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/146 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:39:34 +0530 Remission rates of select mental illness and substance use disorders in India https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/141 <p><strong>Background</strong>: There are very few literature evidence studying the remission rates among mental illness and substance use disorders (MISUD) in India. Knowledge of the remission and its characteristics can help to draw better policies for mental health care delivery in India.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Using the Global Burden of Diseases, 2016 approach and employing the DisMod-MR – 2.1.6 mathematical modelling, prevalence, incidence and remission rates of 4 substance use disorders (alcohol, opioid, cocaine and cannabis), schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and conduct disorder were studied.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Within the mathematical model confines the prevalence, incidence characteristics of MISUDs based on age and gender are presented. The remission rate per person year ranged from 0.015 to 1.46 for different MISUD. Gender had significant on the model for anxiety disorders, conduct disorders, opioid and alcohol use disorder. The effect of age on the model are described in detail</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The outcome of the study indicates the remission rates of MISUDs are highly variable. Remission rates significantly varies between age and gender. Based on these inputs, customized and targeted MISUDs therapies may be designed for better remission. The study also underlines the need for further large scale research efforts required for studying and reporting natural history of MISUDs from India.</p> Anusa A.M. Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/141 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:40:25 +0530 Rapid detection of gene encoding oxa carbapenemases in Acinetobacter using multiplex PCR https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/144 <p><strong>Background and Objective:</strong> <em>Acinetobacter</em>, has been identified as an important pathogen in nosocomial outbreaks with high levels of emerging drug resistance. So the present study was conducted in <em>Acinetobacter spp</em> to find out the utility of the multiplex PCR assay, which may be used as a useful technique in the early detection &amp; prevention of &nbsp;bla<sub>OXA-23</sub> and&nbsp; bla<sub>OXA-58</sub> gene harbouring in clinical isolates taken from the patients coming to a tertiary care hospital.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Strains of <em>Acinetobacter</em> collected from different clinical samples were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Strains which were found showing resistance to imipenem by both disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), were analysed for the presence blaOXA<sub>-23</sub> and blaOXA<sub>-58</sub> (CLASS D) by using multiplex PCR.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 175 strains of <em>Acinetobacter</em> collected from the clinical samples, 45 strains showed imipenem resistance, both by disk diffusion and MIC out of which 19(42.2%) were positive for&nbsp; bla<sub>OXA-58 </sub>gene and all strains 45(100%) were positive for bla<sub>OXA-23</sub> gene.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study shows that there is dissemination of genes produced carbapenem resistant in the <em>Acinetobacter</em> isolates. This scientific evidence can be used to limit the spread of such strains in hospital settings as well as in the community, and also may help in initiating specific hospital infection control measures.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Keywords –</strong>OXA carbapenemases, Imipenem, <em>Acinetobacter, </em>PCR</p> Lavanya P, Uma A.N. Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/144 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:40:14 +0530 An audit of the teachers’ views on student disrespect in a medical school https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/148 <p>Background and Objectives: Student disrespect in higher education is a topic of increasing focus in recent times. This internal audit on faculty perception of student disrespect was conducted an among the staff from the faculty of Medicine in northern Malaysia.</p> <p>Material and Methods: A cross-sectional audit was done among the 95 staff of a private university using the online Google-form as voluntary and anonymous in nature. The descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were done by SPSS software.</p> <p>Results: The total number of respondents were 72 (76%). Of the eight responders (11%) who perceived student disrespect, seven of them perceived it among the students in clinical years. There was no significant association between the gender of the respondent and the perception on student disrespect. The themes of student disrespect were ‘not following rules; not being punctual, lack of social grace or etiquette and absenteeism without prior notice’.</p> <p>Conclusion: Several studies have documented that incivility and disrespectful behaviour are often displayed in the clinical environment, which might adversely affect patient safety and promote medical students’ disrespect. For the medical students to learn proper behaviour by role-modelling, the medical educators and professionals must eschew rudeness and incivility in the workplace.</p> Sethuraman K.R, Swe Swe Latt Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/148 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:39:22 +0530 Perception and assessment of scholarship in health science institutions in India – Gap between the existing and the desirable https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/145 <p>Scholarship or scholarly activity is implied as part of the “job requirement” of faculty in health sciences. However, the concept of scholarship other than an emphasis on publications is hitherto lacking in India with no weightage being given to all four components of scholarship as described by Boyer, viz. the scholarship of discovery, application, integration or teaching leave alone a weightage for innovative activities.</p> <p>This paper describes the components of scholarly activities, the current requirement or lack of it of “mandatory” training right from the undergraduate student days in scholarly activities, poor scholarly requirements for postgraduates and a faculty appraisal which values only publications. Metrics have been suggested for all individual five components of scholarship and an emphasis has been laid on training right from the beginning of medical education for the activity to be internalized.</p> Ananthakrishnan N Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/145 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:39:54 +0530 Experience in managing two challenging cases from paediatric age group https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/128 <p>Mid-facial infection carries potential dangers of developing severe life-threatening&nbsp;intracranial complications. Early intervention and the awareness of possible&nbsp;complications essentially can help bring about a better outcome. Presented here,&nbsp;two paediatric cases of nasal abscesses, who developed such serious intracranial<br>complications as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis and brain infarction, but&nbsp;ultimately survived the crisis with appropriate intervening measures comprising&nbsp;immediate surgical intervention, efficient intensive care and long-term antibiotics.&nbsp;The cases were studied to ascertain a clinical course and outcome in the light of<br>experience at a district hospital for further clinical application. No reconstructive&nbsp;surgery was performed on these patients but in short-term follow-up, no obvious&nbsp;facial developmental problem has been detected yet.</p> Kallyan K.D. Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/128 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:41:27 +0530 Maxillary nerve block – a useful supplementary technique in the management of trigeminal neuralgia https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/140 <p>A 62 year old male patient presented with complaints of left sided facial pain for 1 year. Patient was diagnosed to be a case of trigeminal neuralgia predominantly affecting the maxillary region after a thorough clinical examination by different specialties and investigations. Analgesics, antidepressants decreased pain but were unsatisfactory. Increased doses caused more sedation and decreased quality of life. An extra oral single shot maxillary nerve block was given and single drug therapy was continued. Satisfactory analgesia was noticed after a month. This case reports traditional extra oral maxillary nerve block as an adjuvant option for long term pain relief for trigeminal neuralgia.</p> Janani N, Parthasarathy S Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/140 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:40:40 +0530 Unusual presentations of branchial cysts https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/154 <p>Branchial cleft cysts commonly present in the upper neck along the anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle and are derived from the second branchial cleft .Their diagnosis is usually straight forward but sometimes due to unusual presentations they may be misdiagnosed and even mismanaged.A thorough knowledge of embryology and anatomy is essential in the diagnosis and surgical management of branchial cleft cysts</p> Vijay Nivas A,, Mathew Jackson, Ravikumar C, Rajkamal Pandian.D, Saranya S Copyright (c) 2019 SBV Journal of Basic Clinical and Applied Health Science https://jbcahs.org/journal/article/view/154 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 12:38:03 +0530